BLUE Art Supply Pigment Database for Watercolor Gouache Acrylic, Ink Pencil Color Chart Swatch

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Artist reference guide to Blue pigments in art supplies. Color chart swatch cards of common pigments in watercolor, gouache, acrylic paint and inks. Includes brand lightfast ratings (plus notes if my independent test found the color to be fugitive), indexed by pigment number code, brand, manufacturer color name, how the color appears in masstone (full strength) or diluted (with water). Each image displays opacity, lifting (erasing with a damp brush), layering (a second coat of paint after the first has dried) and if the color is capable of holding a smooth gradient blend in wet.

 

PB1 , PB15 , PB15:1 , PB15:2 , PB15:3 , PB15:4 , PB15:6 , PB16 , PB17 , PB27 , PB28 , PB29 , PB30 , PB31 , PB32 , PB33 , PB35 , PB36 , PB60 , PB66 , PB71 , PB72 , PB74 , PB82 , PB86

Natural, antiquity, mineral or unique blue pigments: NB1 IndigoBlue Apatite Genuine , Han Blue , Kyanite Genuine , Lapis Lazuli , Palomar Turquoise , Sodalite Genuine , Sugalite , Vivianite , VB1 (Vat Blue 1) 

 

Grayscale swatch card information panel

 

Why salt swatch color separating mixtures identify similar pigment differences 

PB1 Victoria Blue:
Rare. Fugitive. PB1 has been rated as ASTM LFIV (poor lightfastness) and noted as prone to darkening. Offered by White Nights (or Yarka St. Petersburg as imported by Jack Richeson in USA) as "Blue Lake" watercolor. Some designer gouache and pastels also include PB1 in mixtures.

 

White Nights Blue Lake PB1 pigment rare fugitive lightfast test result

  

PB15 Phthalocyanine Blue:
Phthalo Blue is a lightfast, strong blue (often overpowering in mixtures) ideal for use as a cyan primary mixing color. Phthalo Green and Blues (with the exception of PB16) are copper based with reported toxicity in fish/marine life. This pigment is naturally flocculating, being prone to extreme granulation unless ground very finely and processed with certain additives. Most brands offer the staining, very smooth, non-granulating version. You may see notable texture in paints using slightly larger particle pigment powders (coarse/not quite as finely ground) which results in an easier to lift color. This far less-staining sky-blue version is typically labeled as Manganese Blue Hue. This pigment comes in various shades, sometimes labeled as as Phthalo Blue "red shade" or "green shade". You may see further classifications of Phthalo Blue pigments with a colon/secondary number, but not all companies discern which type of Phthalo Blue they offer. The colon number is an indicator that a different type of salt was used in the lake dye process and paint makers only sometimes specify. The red shade version is a touch too close to my preferred Ultramarine Blue PB29 for me to find it necessary, but those searching for a more lightfast alternative to Prussian Blue may appreciate this color. Phthalo Blue is an extremely useful pigment, I use two of the green leaning versions in my palette = PB15 "Manganese Blue Hue" and PB15:3 "Green Shade", which I elaborate on in my top lightfast palette picks).

 

Manganese Blue hue daniel smith close match genuine pb33 pb15 phthalo blue replacement pigment

 

"Manganese Blue Hue" by Daniel Smith is the closest replica of discontinued PB33 (the old, no longer manufactured, toxic Manganese Blue Genuine) I have ever seen. It also has an unusual bonus of being able to be used as a UV reactive paint which glows under black light. There is a clear/invisible optical brightener/fluorescent dye in this color that does not change the lightfastness of the underlying blue in normal light. I have not found this "glow" effect (refracting UV-A light) to occur in any other brand of PB15. This is an unusual choice by Daniel Smith which I speculate helps with the convincing brightness and texture match compared to the old genuine Manganese Blue. Both Turner and Winsor & Newton also make lovely sky blue options, but they lack the UV glow and granulation texture of Daniel Smith's version.

 

 PB15 Daniel Smith Watercolor Manganese Blue Hue Art Pigment Database PB15 Winsor and Newton Professional Manganese Blue Hue Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart PB15 Turner Watercolor Manganese Blue Hue Color Art Pigment Database Swatch Card PB15 Winsor and Newton Professional Winsor Blue GS Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart PB15 Holbein Acrylic Gouache Acryla D194 Sky Blue pigment swatch card art watercolor test fugitive lightfast color database PB15 Holbein Acrylic Gouache Acryla D192 Primary Cyan pigment swatch card art watercolor test fugitive lightfast color database PB15 Turner Watercolor Phthalo Blue Color Art Pigment Database Swatch Card PB15 Jackson's Store Brand Phthalo Blue gritty stain pigment database sennelier art color swatch card PB15 Prima Art Philosophy Confetti Blue Watercolor Swatch Card PB15 Paul Rubens Hint of Glitter Pan Set Watercolor Phthalo Blue Swatch Card Color Chart PB15 Winsor and Newton Professional Winsor Blue RS Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart PB15 Turner Watercolor Phthalo Blue Red Shade Color Art Pigment Database Swatch Card PB15 Rosa Gallery Watercolor Blue Phthalo Pigment Database PB15 Da Vinci Phthalo Blue pigment dip pen swatch card color colour database

 

PB15 Mixtures:
PV19 PB15 Rosa Gallery Quinacridone Quin Violet watercolor swatch card pigment art colour water masstone diluted astm database PB15 PV23 PW6 Prima Art Philosophy Confetti Denim Watercolor Swatch Card  PB60 PB15 PBk6 Paul Rubens Hint of Glitter Pan Set Watercolor Sea Blue Swatch Card Color Chart PB15 PB15:1 PB27 Schmincke Horadam Paris Blue watercolor pigment art swatch card masstone diluted comparison pro professional PB29 PB15 Schmincke Horadam Ultramarine Blue art color pigment swatch card masstone diluted test granulating PB35 PG50 PB15 Old Holland Classic Watercolors Manganese Blue Extra pigment swatch rare mineral paint art professional PB33 PB15 Da Vinci Watercolor Manganese Blue Mixture Art Pigment Database PG7 PB15 Prima Art Philosophy Confetti Teal Watercolor Swatch Card PB15 PBr7 Daniel Smith Watercolor Cascade Green Swatch Card PB15 PBr7 Paul Rubens Tube Watercolor Christmas Green Swatch Card Color Chart PBr7 PB15 Paul Rubens Hint of Glitter Pan Set Watercolor Christmas Green Swatch Card Color Chart PY42 PB15 PR101 Turner Watercolor Evergreen Color Pigment Database Swatch Card PB15 PG8 Schmincke Horadam Olive Green pigment art color swatch colour texture masstone diluted PBk6 PV19 PB15 Winsor and Newton Professional Indigo Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart PV19 PB15 PBk6 Paul Rubens Standard Pan set Indigo art swatch card color pigment database stain test masstone diluted PBk11 PB15 Daniel Smith Lunar Blue Watercolor color separating granulating swatch database pigment PB15 PBK7 PW6 WHITE NIGHTS WATERCOLOR MARENGO ART PIGMENT PAINT DATABASE PB15 PB29 PBk9 Paul Rubens Standard Pan Payn's Grey swatch card pigment art set half full pan lightfast fugitive art PBk6 PV19 PB15 Winsor and Newton Professional Payne's Gray Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart PBk11 PB15 Paul Rubens Shi Yun set Lan Dai Qing # 461 pigment water color swatch card dark lightfast masstone diluted PBk7 PB15 PV19 Jackson's Store Brand Payne's Grey smooth pigment database sennelier art color swatch card PBk11 PB29 PB15 Isaro Payne's Grey watercolor art swatch pigment card water color colour database comparison opaque hue PB15 PBk7 PG7 Rosa Gallery Black Green watercolor swatch card pigment art colour water masstone diluted astm database PBk6 PV19 PB15 Winsor and Newton Professional Neutral Tint Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart

 

PB15:1 Phthalocyanine Blue RS:

See PB15, as many companies label their PB15:1 as simply PB15 "red shade". This is a deeper value Phthalo Blue that those looking for a replacement for the fugitive PB27 Prussian Blue may appreciate (also see PB60 Indanthrene/Indanthrone Blue). Instead of reaching for warmer blues for foliage greens, I find that I prefer the control of using the green shade PB15:3. I mix it with Nickel Azo Yellow PY150, adding just a touch of a red pigment (PR209 or PR254) as needed for warm olive colors. 

PB15:1 Rosa Gallery STUDIO Blue student grade pigment art swatch color card colour sonnet comparison PB15:1 Schmincke Horadam Phthalo Blue watercolor pigment art swatch card masstone diluted comparison pro professional 

PB15:1  Mixtures:
PB15:1 PW6 Schmincke Horadam Ice Blue watercolor pigment color separating granulating blue wool lightfast swatch art PB15:1 PW6 PB29 PR122 A Gallo Handmade Watercolor Periwinkle lightfast fugitive database pigment art swatch card test rare water color colour PB15 PB15:1 PB27 Schmincke Horadam Paris Blue watercolor pigment art swatch card masstone diluted comparison pro professional PB15:1 PW6 Arrtx Gouache Lake Blue Color Pigment Database Paint  PB15:1 PY42 PW6 Arrtx Gouache Cloud Peninnah Color Pigment Database Paint PB15:1 PBr7 PBk9 Schmincke Horadam Sepia Brown Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart PB15:1 PBk9 A Gallo Handmade Watercolor Midnight Blue art color colour mixture pigment watercolor water swatch test PB15:1 PBk7 PV19 A Gallo Handmade Watercolor Payne's Gray art color colour mixture pigment watercolor water swatch test PB15:1 PB66 Schmincke Horadam Indigo art color pigment swatch card masstone diluted test granulating PB15:1 PV19 PBk7 Rosa Gallery Watercolor Indigo Art of Pigment Tube Full Pan Color Chart PB15:1 PV19 PBk7 Rosa Gallery Watercolor Payne's Gray Watercolor Database Peynes PB19 Pigment PB15:1 PR177 PBk7 Rosa Gallery Neutral Black Watercolor Art Pigment Database Tube Pan Color Chart PBk7 PB15-1 Rosa Gallery STUDIO Lamp Black student grade pigment art swatch color card colour sonnet comparison

 

PB15:2 Phthalocyanine Blue:
PB15:2 Old Holland Classic Watercolors Blue Lake pigment swatch rare mineral paint art professional

 

 

PB15:3 Phthalocyanine Blue BGS:
PB15:3 Prima Art Philosophy Confetti Sky Watercolor Swatch Card PB15:3 Liquitex Basics Acrylic Primary Blue color separating granulating pigment shimmer metallic PB15-3 Rosa Gallery STUDIO Blue Light student grade pigment art swatch color card colour sonnet comparison PB15:3 Schmincke Horadam Helio Cerulean watercolor pigment art swatch card masstone diluted comparison pro professional PB15:3 Paul Rubens Standard Pan set Sea Blue art swatch card color pigment database stain test masstone diluted PB15:3 Rosa Gallery Bright Blue Watercolor Paint Pigment Database Handprint Color Chart PB15:3 Schmincke Aqua Drop Cyan Blue Watercolor Swatch Card PB15:3 Daler Rowney Aquafine INK Phthalo Blue Pigment Database Student PB15-3 Sennelier Pro Watercolor Phthalocyanine Blue Pigment Database Color Chart PB15-3 Mission Gold 2021 pan set Cerulean Blue pigment art color colour swatch card comparison lightfast fugitive water PB15:3 Liquitex Basics Acrylic Phthalo Blue color separating granulating pigment shimmer metallic PB15:3 Calli Daler Rowney CALLIGRAPHY INK Blue pigment dip pen swatch card color colour database PB15:3 Maimeri Blu Watercolor Swatch 2016 Primary Blue Cyan database pigment hue color vibrant opaque PB15:3 Isaro Phthalo Blue watercolor art swatch pigment card water color colour database comparison opaque hue PB15:3 Schmincke AeroColor Acrylic Primary Blue Cyan texture diluted masstone glazed dip pen writing swatch card PB15:3 A Gallo Handmade Watercolor Transparent Cerulean hue pigment art water color colour swatch card sample lightfast fugitive 

 

PB15:3  Mixtures:
PV15 PB15:3 PR122 Mission Gold Ultramarine Violet mix pigment art swatch water color colour database lightfast test masstone diluted tube texture card PW6 PB15-3 PG7 Liquitex Basics Acrylic Light Blue Violet color separating granulating pigment shimmer metallic PB29 PB15:3 PG7 PW6 Liquitex Basics Acrylic Cerulean Blue Hue color separating granulating pigment shimmer metallic PW4 PB15-3 Schmincke Horadam Cerulean Blue Hue watercolor pigment art swatch card masstone diluted comparison pro professional PB29 PB15:3 PW6 Liquitex Basics Acrylic Cobalt Blue Hue color separating granulating pigment shimmer metallic PB29 PB15:3 A Gallo Handmade Watercolor Azzurro lightfast fugitive database pigment art swatch card test rare water color colour PB15:3 PV23 Jo Sonja's Matte Fluid Acrylic Blue Violet chroma opaque flow vibrant pigment swatch card database PB15:3 PBr7 A Gallo Harbour Blue water color pigment database swatch test card light fast PBk9 PB15:3 PR177 Old Holland Classic Watercolor Indigo Extra pigment swatch database card color separation swatch PB15:3 PG7 PW6 A Gallo Handmade Watercolor Teal Blue pigment art swatch color colour water hue lightfast rare test PG7 PB15:3 PW6 Jo Sonja's Matte Fluid Acrylic Aqua chroma opaque flow vibrant pigment swatch card database PB15:3 PG7 Rosa Gallery Watercolor Turquoise Pigment Database Color Chart Swatch Card PB15:3 PG7 PW4 Old Holland Classic Watercolors Turquoise Blue Deep pigment swatch rare mineral paint art professional PG7 PB15-3 Rosa Gallery STUDIO Turquoise student grade pigment art swatch color card colour sonnet comparison PBr24 PB15:3 Roman Szmal Aquarius Ocean Blue water color pigment database swatch test card light fast PW4 PG7 PB15:3 PY3 A Gallo Handmade Watercolor Copper Blue Hue natural organic pigment swatch art card water color colour plant lightfast fugitive rare PB15:3 PY3 PG7 Shinhan Korean Color A Blue Green Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart PB15:3 PG7 PY42 Schmincke Horadam Hooker's Green pigment art color swatch colour texture masstone diluted 

 

PB15:4 Phthalocyanine Blue NCF:

PB15:4 Grumbacher Academy Thalo Blue Watercolor Swatch Card 

 

PB15:4  Mixtures:
PB15:4 PG7 PB29 A Gallo Handmade Watercolor Aquamarine art color colour mixture pigment watercolor water swatch test PB15:4 PY153 PBk6 PY97 Blick Artists Watercolor Hooker's Green Deep Art Pigment Database PB15:4 PB29 PBk6 Grumbacher Academy Payne's Gray Watercolor Swatch Card

 

PB15:6 Phthalocyanine Blue:

PB15:6 Schmincke Horadam Phthalo Sapphire Blue art color pigment swatch card masstone diluted test granulating  

PB15:6  Mixtures:
PY65 PB15:6 PR101 Winsor and Newton Professional Olive Green Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart PBk6 PB15:6 Schmincke Horadam Payne's Grey Bluish watercolor pigment granulating lightfast vibrant swatch database art color 

 

PB16 Phthalocyanine Turquoise:
Metal free Phthalo - created without the use of copper making it less toxic for fish/aquatic life/environmental concerns. This is a slightly deeper valued green-leaning Phthalo Blue that has some desaturation wet to dry shift. Lightfast with minor bronzing/darkening over many years of UV exposure. Can be slightly granulating if the manufacture selected larger coarse pigment particles, but most brands offer a very finely ground non-granulating pigment. 
PB16 Winsor and Newton Professional Phthalo Turquoise Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart PB16 Daler Rowney Aquafine TUBE Transparent Turquoise Pigment Database Granulating Student PB16 Schmincke Horadam Helio Turquoise watercolor pigment art swatch card masstone diluted comparison pro professional PB16 Schmincke AeroColor Acrylic Turquoise Blue texture diluted masstone glazed dip pen writing swatch card PB16 Schmincke Horadam Gouache Helio Turquoise Art Pigment Database PB16 Da Vinci Watercolor Phthalo Turquoise Art Pigment Database PB16 Turner Watercolor Phthalo Turquoise Staining Pigment Database Swatch Card PB16 Holbein ACRYLIC INK Phthalo Turquoise pigment swatch card color colour database

 

PB16 Mixtures:

PB16 PY3 Utrecht Watercolor Turquoise Green Art Pigment Database 

PB17 Phthalocyanine Cyan:
PB17 Paul Rubens Hint of Glitter Pan Set Watercolor Blue Peacock Swatch Card Color Chart PB17 Paul Rubens Standard Pan set Peacock Blue art swatch card color pigment database stain test masstone diluted 

 

PB17 Mixtures:
PB17 Dye Mix Supervision Tube Set Yellow Green super vision 1723 fugitive lightfast pigment color art swatch compare stain lift PB17 Supervision Sky Ink pigment swatch card super vision watercolor acrylic gouache review art color

 

PB27 PRUSSIAN BLUE. Fugitive pigment often mislabeled as lightfast in watercolors. Unfortunately PB27 always fades in sun, but might recover in shade. Manufacturers who are aware of the issue may mark it as lightfast due to it's ability to regain color after being removed from light. In my opinion, paint should not need to be taken off the wall for a nap in a dark corner for it to be considered lightfast. I avoid this pigment if planning to sell a painting or display it in a gallery, because a buyer is likely to hang it in a room with a window. It is only stable in indoor artificial light or museum low-light conditions. Artwork made with Prussian Blue can fade from nearby window lighting, which can become noticeable in rooms with large windows or in locations closer to the equator. For replacing PB27 in mixtures, I would use a Phthalo Blue PB15 (red shade) instead. For a deep dark blue replacement, Phthalo and black pigments like PBk7 are often offered as a convenience mixture to create indigo hues (which look similar to Prussian Blue). You may also appreciate the single pigment option - Indanthrene PB60 as a good lightfast alternative to PB27.

 

"BUT Kim, --- brand of Prussian Blue is lightfast!" I get this a lot because every manufacturer labels their paints as LFI. I'm sorry for the bad news, but it's chemically impossible for PB27 to be totally stable. It is produced by oxidation of ferrous ferrocyanide salts. Sun bleaches the FeIII (Iron) which requires time to re-oxidize away from light. Prussian has a reaction to UV light on a chemical level, which is only reversible over time in darkness. You don't have to take my word for it though, feel free to do your own testing. Cut a swatch card in half and tape one side to the window facing outward (make sure it's not UV-blocking glass, and it's a direction that gets several hours of daily direct sunrise or sunset light) for at least 1 summer month or 3 winter months. Compare the two sides of your swatch immediately upon removal from the window. Short duration tests may have the color recover within days in shade, but PB27 becomes irreparably faded when exposed to long term light (6mo-1yr). Winsor and Newton was one of the only major manufacturers to politely include a note about this on their past color charts:

winsor and newton prussian blue pb27 watercolor cotman and professional paint 

I advise caution about trusting lightfast ratings in general, because some testing methods offer limited information. Read more about testing limitations and see a list of all the pigments that have been flagged for fading on my fugitive pigments list page.

 

Prussian blue lightfast test fade uv problem light recover shade daniel smith watercolor paint 

Each Prussian Blue watercolor I've tested faded within 3 months. In comparison, extremely fugitive paints (such as opera/neon pink) fade at about the same rate, with some brands of Opera even outlasting Prussian. Totally lightfast colors can stay in direct sunlight for several years without signs of fading. PB27 is an interesting and unique pigment though, if you put it in a shady drawer for a while the color will almost regain full strength. The only variance between brands is how MUCH it will recover AFTER fading. Prussian Blue takes time to become darker again in the shade. Some brands can make a nearly-full recovery in several weeks to months. The variance may be due to the differences in pigment source, how long the UV exposure lasted, and any protection from binder additives. It's possible that the ASTM rating came from someone who collected results and let them sit in the shade before comparing them, or decided that since it was able to recover it was OK. To me this defies the definition of a "lightfast" rating.

PB27 Old Holland Classic Watercolors Prussian Blue Extra pigment swatch rare mineral paint art professional PB27 Mission Gold Prussian Blue watercolor color chart swatch card lightfast test PB27 Daniel Smith Watercolor Prussian Blue Swatch Card PB27 Holbein Watercolor Prussian Blue Swatch Card PB27 Paul Rubens Watercolor Prussian Blue Swatch Card PB27 Schmincke Horadam Watercolor Prussian Blue Swatch Card PB27 Sennelier Watercolor Prussian Blue Swatch Card PB27 Shinhan Watercolor Prussian Blue Swatch Card PB27 Winsor & Newton Cotman Watercolor Prussian Blue Swatch Card PB27 Winsor and Newton Professional Antwerp Blue Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart PB27 Winsor and Newton Professional Prussian Blue Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart PB27 Turner Watercolor Prussian Blue Staining Pigment Database Swatch Card PB27 Arrtx Gouache Prussian Blue Color Pigment Database Paint 

 

PB27 Mixtures:

PB15 PB15:1 PB27 Schmincke Horadam Paris Blue watercolor pigment art swatch card masstone diluted comparison pro professional PB27 daniel smith deep sap green watercolor swatch prussian blue lightfast test 

PB28 Cobalt Blue:

PB28 Paul Rubens Hint of Glitter Pan Set Watercolor Cobalt Blue Swatch Card Color Chart PB28 Winsor and Newton Professional Cobalt Blue Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart PB28 Rosa Gallery Watercolor Blue Cobalt Blue Pigment Database Color Chart Swatch Card PB28 Old Holland Classic Watercolors Cobalt Blue pigment swatch rare mineral paint art professional PB28 Paul Rubens Standard Pan set Cobalt Blue art swatch card color pigment database stain test masstone diluted PB28 Schmincke Horadam Cobalt Blue Light art color pigment swatch card masstone diluted test granulating PB28 Turner Watercolor Turquoise Blue Color Pigment Database Swatch Card PB28 Rosa Gallery Cobalt Turquoise Blue Watercolor Paint Pigment Database Handprint Color Chart PB28 Rembrandt Watercolor Cobalt Turquoise Blue Art Pigment Database PB28 White Nights Watercolor Cobalt Turquoise Teal Blue Aqua Paint Color PB28 Roman Szmal Aquarius Watercolor Cobalt Sea Blue Color Swatch Granulating PB28 Maimeri Blu Watercolor Turquoise Cobalt Watercolour swatch color chart card pigment PB28 Shinhan Pro Designers Gouache Cobalt Turquoise fugitive dye pigment color lightfast fade test swatch card art image

PB28  Mixtures:

PB28 Dye Mix Supervision Tube Set Blue Gradient super vision 1721 fugitive lightfast pigment color art swatch compare stain lift PG7 PB28 PW18 Shinhan Pro Designers Gouache Cobalt Green Pale fugitive dye pigment color lightfast fade test swatch card art image PB28 PB36 Winsor and Newton Professional Cobalt Turquoise Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart PG23 PG18 PB28 Winsor and Newton Professional Terre Verte Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart

 

PB29 Ultramarine Blue: Also known as French Ultramarine, Lapis Lazuli (genuine or hue), Cobalt Blue (hue) or Permanent Blue. Non-hazardous (low to no toxicity in humans). Typically lightfast (LFI / BW8) but care must be taken to use acid-free paper, as sulfur-based pigments will discolor when exposed to acids. Ultramarine Blue is a replacement for the chemically identical Lapis Lazuli (a semi-precious stone). Daniel Smith still offers Lapis Lazuli genuine, the naturally occurring version of this pigment used in many famous paintings throughout history. It used to be reserved for the very wealthy, until chemist Jean Baptiste Guimet came up with a formula to make it synthetically in France during the 1820s. This took a surprising number of ingredients including sulfur, kaolin clay, silica, charcoal, sodium carbonate and sulfate. The ratio and heat used to create the material, and the exposure to oxygen, results in a variety of deep blue colors.

Variants: Ultramarine comes in multiple shades such as "deep" and "GS" (green shade) and when further exposed to heat and ammonium chloride (Salammoniac) it turns slightly violet. It is then renamed Ultramarine Violet PV15. Winsor and Newton have made a color called "Smalt" without the word hue. Smalt is incredibly misleading to those seeking historical pigments, as it is actually made from Ultramarine Violet PV15 and NOT genuine Smalt PB32. When you add hydrochloric acid, Ultramarine turns into a delicate pale pink called Ultramarine Pink PR259. Be aware that all Ultramarines are generally regarded as lightfast. However, "Ultramarine Green" PG24 which may be found as a raw material pigment powder, handmade watercolor or from the company "Kremer Pigment" is not lightfast.
PB29 Schmincke Horadam Ultramarine Finest Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart PB29 Shinhan Korean Color A Ultramarine Blue Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart PB29 Paul Rubens Hint of Glitter Pan Set Watercolor France Ultramarine Swatch Card Color Chart PB29 White Nights Watercolor Ultramarine Deep PB29 Ultramarine Blue White Nights Watercolor Color Chart Swatch Card PB29 Prima Tube Ultramarine Deep Swatch Card PB29 Rosa Gallery Watercolor Ultramarine Blue Pigment Database Swatch Card Color Chart PB29 Winsor and Newton Professional Ultramarine Blue GS Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart PB29 Winsor and Newton Professional French Ultramarine Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart PB29 Schmincke Horadam Watercolor French Ultramarine Blue Granulating Art Pigment Database PB29 Lukas Watercolor Ultramarine Blue Deep Art Pigment Database PB29 Utrecht Watercolor French Ultramarine Art Pigment Database PB29 Blick Artists Watercolor French Ultramarine Art Pigment Database PB29 Daler Rowney Aquafine INK Ultramarine Blue Dark Pigment Database Student PB29 Roman Szmal Aquarius Ultramarine Light pigment art swatch test tint diluted masstone card color colour watercolor fade PB29 Turner Watercolor Ultramarine Blue Color Art Pigment Database Swatch Card PB29 Turner Watercolor Ultramarine Deep Color Art Pigment Database Swatch Card PB29 Superior TUBE Watercolor Ultramarine Deep Pigment Database Color Chart PB29 Holbein Watercolor Ultramarine Deep Pigment Database Color Chart PB29 Liquitex Basics Acrylic Ultramarine Blue color separating granulating pigment shimmer metallic PB29 Da Vinci Ultramarine Green Shade pigment dip pen swatch card color colour database PB29 Maimeri Blu Watercolor Swatch Ultramarine Deep database pigment hue color vibrant opaque PB29 Old Holland Classic Watercolors French Ultramarine Light Extra pigment swatch rare mineral paint art professional PB29 Jackson's Store Brand Ultramarine Deep gritty stain pigment database sennelier art color swatch card PB29 Paul Rubens Standard Pan France Ultramarine swatch card pigment art set half full pan lightfast fugitive art PB29 Rosa Gallery STUDIO Ultramarine Blue student grade pigment art swatch color card colour sonnet comparison PB29 Daler Rowney Aquafine Ultramarine Blue Dark watercolor student grade pro professional pigment pan PB29 Mission Gold 2021 pan set Ultramarine Light pigment art color colour swatch card comparison lightfast fugitive water PB29 Roman Szmal Aquarius Ultramarine Intense art watercolor colour swatch card rare pigment brand database review PB29 Roman Szmal Aquarius Ultramarine Blue GS pigment art swatch test tint diluted masstone card color colour watercolor fade PB29 Roman Szmal Aquarius French Ultramarine pigment art swatch test tint diluted masstone card color colour watercolor fade PB29 Isaro Ultramarine Blue watercolor art swatch pigment card water color colour database comparison opaque hue PB29 A Gallo Handmade Watercolor Ultramarine Blue Dark pigment art water color colour swatch card sample lightfast fugitive 

 

PB29 Mixtures: An incredibly useful color for mixing and often included in both beginner and professional watercolor sets. Ultramarine Blue can be mixed with PBr7 to create an ideal neutral gray. Another popular mix is with PV19, where it makes deep royal purples. Daniel Smith's mixes have reliable texture effects in wet washes, as the PB29 granulates and separates from the PV19.
pr202 pb29 daniel smith permanent violet watercolor color separating pigment swatch card PB29 PR122 Rosa Gallery STUDIO Violet Light student grade pigment art swatch color card colour sonnet comparison PB29 PV19 Roman Szmal Aquarius Watercolor Mineral Violet Swatch Card Color Chart PB29 PR122 Supervision Royal Purple pigment swatch card super vision watercolor acrylic gouache review art color PB29 PR122 PBr25 Holbein Mineral Violet water color pigment swatch card image art granulate separate PB29 PR179 A Gallo Handmade Watercolor Notturno pigment art swatch color colour water hue lightfast rare test PB29 PR122 PBr6 Supervision Crimson Purple pigment swatch card super vision watercolor acrylic gouache review art color PV3-2 PB29 PR122 Mission Gold 2021 pan set Bright Clear Violet pigment art color colour swatch card comparison lightfast fugitive water PV19 PB29 Paul Rubens Hint of Glitter Pan Set Watercolor Royal Purple Swatch Card Color Chart PB29 PV23 Dye Schmincke Horadam Brilliant Blue Violet watercolor pigment fugitive vibrant swatch database art color PB29 PV3 PW6 Rosa Gallery Lavender Watercolor Paint Pigment Database Handprint Color Chart PW6 PR122 PB29 Supervision Lavender pigment swatch card super vision watercolor acrylic gouache review art color PV15 PB29 Schmincke Horadam Watercolor Ultramarine Violet Granulating Art Pigment Database PV19 PB29 Paul Rubens Standard Pan set Royal Purple art swatch card color pigment database stain test masstone diluted PV19 PB29 Paul Rubens Tube Watercolor Royal Purple Swatch Card Color Chart PB29 PR233 Schmincke Horadam Tundra Pink super granulating tundra and forest swatch pigment card color watercolor art PR233 PB29 Schmincke Professional Watercolor Galaxy Violet Granulating Special Edition PB29 PBr6 Schmincke Horadam Tundra Violet super granulating tundra and forest swatch pigment card color watercolor art PY43 PB29 PBr7 Schmincke Horadam Haze Blue swatch card pigment watercolor art color jacksons exclusive granulating PB29 PW20 Isaro Watercolor Boreal Blue pigment art swatch card tube fresh database mica coat shine shimmer color separating PB36 PB29 PR176 PV19 Roman Szmal Aquarius Watercolor Shadow Violet Light Color Swatch Granulating PB29 PBr33 Schmincke Professional Watercolor Deep Sea Violet Granulating Special Edition PBk11 PB29 Schmincke Professional Watercolor Galaxy Black Granulating Special Edition PB29 PBr7 Schmincke Horadam Tundra Blue super granulating tundra and forest swatch pigment card color watercolor art PW6 PB29 PY23 Liquitex Basics Acrylic Light Blue Permanent color separating granulating pigment shimmer metallic PB29 PW6 PW4 Rosa Gallery Royal Blue Watercolor Paint Pigment Database Handprint Color Chart PW4 PV23 PB29 PBk7 Old Holland Classic Watercolors Violet Grey swatch pigment dark paint art pro grade PB15:1 PW6 PB29 PR122 A Gallo Handmade Watercolor Periwinkle lightfast fugitive database pigment art swatch card test rare water color colour PB29 PV23 PBk7 PW4 Old Holland Classic Watercolors Blue Grey pigment swatch rare mineral paint art professional PW5 PB29 PG7 Schmincke Horadam Mountain Blue watercolor pigment art swatch card masstone diluted comparison pro professional PG50 PV16 PB29 Schmincke Professional Watercolor Deep Sea Blue Granulating Special Edition PB29 PG50 Schmincke Professional Watercolor Glacier Blue Granulating Special Edition PW4 PB29 Schmincke Horadam Cobalt Blue Hue art color pigment swatch card masstone diluted test granulating PB29 PB15 Schmincke Horadam Ultramarine Blue art color pigment swatch card masstone diluted test granulating PG50 PB29 Schmincke Professional Watercolor Galaxy Blue Granulating Special Edition  PB29 PB15:3 PG7 PW6 Liquitex Basics Acrylic Cerulean Blue Hue color separating granulating pigment shimmer metallic PB29 PB15:3 PW6 Liquitex Basics Acrylic Cobalt Blue Hue color separating granulating pigment shimmer metallic PB29 PW6 Daler Rowney Aquafine Cobalt Blue Hue watercolor student grade pro professional pigment pan PB29 PB15:3 A Gallo Handmade Watercolor Azzurro lightfast fugitive database pigment art swatch card test rare water color colour PB29 PG7 Supervision Dark Green pigment swatch card super vision watercolor acrylic gouache review art color PG18 PB29 Schmincke Professional Watercolor Deep Sea Green Granulating Special Edition PB29 PBk6 PG50 Schmincke Horadam Ocean Grey Cesc Farre watercolor pigment color separating granulating blue wool lightfast swatch art PB15:4 PG7 PB29 A Gallo Handmade Watercolor Aquamarine art color colour mixture pigment watercolor water swatch test PG18 PB29 A Gallo Handmade Watercolor Deep Sea Green natural mineral pigment art swatch card test rare water color colour PG7 PB29 A Gallo Handmade Watercolor Viridian Hue pigment art water color colour swatch card sample lightfast fugitive PY159 PB29 PG26 Schmincke Horadam Shire Blue watercolor pigment swatch art cart desert volcano new set pan tube PB29 PY65 Supervision Cathedral Glass pigment swatch card super vision watercolor acrylic gouache review art color PY150 PBr25 PB29 Roman Szmal Aquarius Green water color pigment swatch card image art granulate separate PY154 PY110 PB29 A Gallo Handmade Watercolor Olive Green Deep art color colour mixture pigment watercolor water swatch test PB29 PY43 PY12 Supervision Tang Kiln pigment swatch card super vision watercolor acrylic gouache review art color PBr7 PB29 PY53 Daniel Smith Watercolor Olive Green Color Pigment Granulating Swatch Database Card PY150 PO48 PB29 Daniel Smith Watercolor Undersea Green Art Pigment Database PB29 PY43 Supervision Warbler Brown pigment swatch card super vision watercolor acrylic gouache review art color PB29 PBr6 PY43 Supervision Evening Moon pigment swatch card super vision watercolor acrylic gouache review art color PB29 PBr6 PY43 Supervision Black Blue pigment swatch card super vision watercolor acrylic gouache review art color PO73 PB29 PG18 Paul Rubens Tube Watercolor Royal Purple Swatch Card Color Chart PB29 PG18 Paul Rubens Tube Watercolor Royal Purple Swatch Card Color Chart PB29 PB66 Shinhan Korean Color A Indigo Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart PO73 PB29 PG18 Paul Rubens Hint of Glitter Pan Set Watercolor Moonlight Purple Swatch Card Color Chart PB29 PG18 PR177 Da Vinci Artemis Moonglow Dupe Look-A-Like Watercolor PB29 PG18 PR177 Daniel Smith Moonglow Watercolor Lightfast Fugitive Pigment Database PB29 PG18 PR177 Daniel Smith Moonglow Watercolor PAN versus Tube masstone PB29 PG18 PR177 Daniel Smith Moonglow Watercolor PAN versus Tube masstone  PB15 PB29 PBk9 Paul Rubens Standard Pan Payn's Grey swatch card pigment art set half full pan lightfast fugitive art PB29 PG26 PBr33 Schmincke Horadam Haze Indigo swatch card pigment watercolor art color jacksons exclusive granulating PBk11 PB29 Paul Rubens Shi Yun set Yong Di Qing # 462 pigment water color swatch card dark lightfast masstone diluted PB15:4 PB29 PBk6 Grumbacher Academy Payne's Gray Watercolor Swatch Card PBk9 PB29 Utrecht Watercolor payne's Gray Art Pigment Database PB29 PBr7 Daniel Smith Jane's Grey Watercolor Mixture Granulating Art Pigment Database Swatch Card PB29 PY42 PBk9 Daniel Smith Watercolor Payne's Gray pigment dip pen swatch card color colour database PBr7 PB29 PW20 Isaro Steel Blue watercolor art swatch pigment card water color colour database comparison opaque hue PB29 PBk9 Old Holland Classic Watercolor Payne's Grey pigment swatch database card color separation swatch PBk7 PB29 Daler Rowney Aquafine Payne's Grey watercolor student grade pro professional pigment pan PB29 PBr7 PV19 Roman Szmal Aquarius Shadow Grey art watercolor colour swatch card rare pigment brand database review PBk11 PB29 PB15 Isaro Payne's Grey watercolor art swatch pigment card water color colour database comparison opaque hue PR101 PB29 PBk7 Schmincke Horadam Schmincke's Paynes Grey watercolor pigment granulating lightfast vibrant swatch database art color 

 

PB30 Azurite:
LFI, but can yellow due to the copper content (chemical discoloration when exposed to acids or sulfides). Sometimes called Mountain Blue, Blue Bice, Lapis Azurite. Naturally occuring basic carbonate of copper resulting in a slightly dull azure blue. Historically significant and still used in Chinese brush painting. The pigment powder is often turned into watercolor by handmade paint makers. Basic carbonate of copper has not been assigned a pigment code, but has been assigned a C.I. constitution number 77420. Semi opaque and granulating.
PB30 Prodigal Son's Handmade Watercolor Azurite 2 pigment art water color swatch card database natural rare

 

PB31 Egyptian Blue:
AKA Blue Frit or Copper Frit. LFII - Ancient Egyptian art made with this pigment is still a bright beautiful blue today, however preservation of this color may require dry climates free from certain acid or chemical interactions (as copper based pigments have been known to yellow due to acids or sulfides). PB31 is historically significant as the earliest synthetic pigment. Copper Calcium Silicate was synthetically produced for ancient Egyptian artwork. For another historically significant blue made in a similar way, see "Han Blue" used in ancient China/Han Dynasty. Chrysocolla, Cuprorivaite and Egyptian Frit have all been labeled as PB31 Copper Calcium Silicate based pigments from Kremer, however Egyptian Blue is man made (see greens page for the natural hydrated form - Chysocolla). You may also be interested in similar blue-greens that develop on copper ores such as the rare Dioptase and more common Malachite PG39. Egyptian Blue becomes very transparent in oils, but can be more opaque in water media. Highly textural. Increased amounts of water used and rough paper surface will accentuate flocculation clumping or granulation pattern. The pigment powder I tried from Kremer and the handmade watercolor from Prodigal Son's (English pottery pigment source) both appear to have a larger than average particle size. This notable particle chunkiness is likely due to the fact that PB31 is essentially copper glass and paints like a finely ground sand (hard, gritty silicate particles). It may initially appear streaky or gritty like pepper flakes in a wet wash, but generally settles into a strong granulation texture. It feels very similar to PB32 Smalt in texture, but is closer in hue to PB35 Cerulean Blue.
PB31 Prodigal Son's Handmade Watercolor Egyptian Blue pigment art water color swatch card database natural rare PB31 Kremer Pigments Egyptian Blue copper frit pb31 database historical ancient color

 

PB32 Smalt:
LFI / BW8*. Smalt is also called Dumont's Blue and is the oldest man made cobalt blue pigment. The artificial pigment manufacturing is done by coloring Potassium Silicate with Cobalt Blue to essentially create a Cobalt Glass. Blue Cobalt Glassware has been found in antiques from several ancient cultures, but it was not commonly manufactured as a pigment until 1820. Most pigment powder suppliers such as Kremer and Natural Pigments offer a lightfast Smalt in fine or coarse ground options. *Lightfastness is dependent upon getting the ratio of Potassium to Cobalt correct during manufacturing (minimum 1:1 ratio or more of Potassium). All samples independently lightfast tested have been stable for over 6 months of direct sunlight. This pigment's glassy sand-like particles cause it to have a gritty feel and it eagerly granulates in watercolor. Winsor and Newton pro watercolors offer a Smalt/Dumont's Blue, but it is not properly labeled as a hue (look-alike) since it is made from Ultramarine Violet PV15 and not genuine PB32. I have only found Smalt available in handmade watercolors from small businesses such as Prodigal Son's and Poems About You on Etsy.

PB32 Prodigal Son's Handmade Watercolor Smalt 200s pigment art watercolor colour swatch card database resin lightfast PB32 Prodigal Son's Handmade Watercolor Smalt 400s pigment art watercolor colour swatch card database resin lightfast  

PB33 Manganese Blue:
LFI / BW8. Barium Sulphate-Permanganate is toxic. This pigment should be handled with caution, especially to avoid breathing it in powder form. Do not airbrush/spray apply. A stunning, lightfast, bright blue falling between azure and cyan - making it a great primary mixing blue resulting in vibrant, textural, clean mixtures (emerald greens when mixed with yellows and lively purples when mixed with magenta). If you appreciate Phthalo Blue Green Shade, but want a similar intense blue that granulates instead of being smooth - this is it. Heavily granulating in watercolor (less notable texture in oil/acrylic and masstone, where the particles are not given the ability to separate in water). Discontinued pigment due to the toxic by-products created during the making of Barium Manganate. For environmental, health and cost concerns this pigment's production was halted in the 1970s. Paint production using existing stocks remained popular in Germany until the 1990s. In the early 2000s most independent paint makers that stocked up on it had sold out. Old Holland was the last larger company offering it single pigment, ending in 2016-17. DaVinci is still selling it as a small percentage of a mixture with phthalo blue as of 2022. I do not recommend Da Vinci's Manganese Blue Mixture, as it has none of the vibrancy and texture PB33 is known for. Vintage stock of PB33 powder still exists in very small amounts. In 2021-2022 I was still able to purchase PB33 as handmade watercolor from Prodigal Son's on etsy (highly recommended).

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For a more common, affordable, non-toxic look-alike that is easier to find, consider Daniel Smith's Manganese Blue Hue (see PB15 or my favorite lightfast pigments page here) as it is the closest match in color and granulation I have ever seen for this pigment. Turner offers a great color match, but poor paint performance. Winsor and Newton's hue is a lovely sky blue, but again fails to replicate the texture. Daniel Smith's MBHue is slightly weaker in both color intensity and texture than genuine PB33, but most other brands fail miserably to mimic genuine PB33 and have no texture whatsoever. After 5 years in tube storage, Old Holland's binder has slightly yellowed and also caused this pigment to granulate less than when it was fresh before I made this swatch:
PB33 Old Holland Watercolor Manganese Blue Art Pigment Database PB33 Selah Paint Company Manganese Blue rare uncommon pigment database swatch card water color watercolor art color PB33 Prodigal Son's Manganese Blue Genuine vintage rare uncommon pigment database swatch card water color watercolor art color 

 

PB33 Mixtures:

PB33 PB15 Da Vinci Watercolor Manganese Blue Mixture Art Pigment Database 

PB35 Cerulean Blue:
PB35 Winsor and Newton Professional Cerulean Blue RSF Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart PB35 Schmincke Horadam Watercolor French Cobalt Azure Granulating Art Pigment Database PB35 Winsor and Newton Professional Cerulean Blue Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart PB35 Prodigal Son's Handmade Watercolor Cerulean Blue pigment swatch etsy granulating art color water card PB35 Prodigal Son's Handmade Watercolor Cerulean Blue Light pigment swatch etsy granulating art color water card 

 

PB35 Mixtures:

PB35 PG50 PB15 Old Holland Classic Watercolors Manganese Blue Extra pigment swatch rare mineral paint art professional PY159 PB35 Schmincke Horadam Shire Olive watercolor pigment swatch art cart desert volcano new set pan tube PBk11 PB74 PB35 Schmincke Professional Watercolor Deep Sea Black Granulating Special Edition  PBk11 PB35 Schmincke Professional Watercolor Glacier Black Granulating Special Edition 

PB36 Cobalt Chromite:
PB36 Paul Rubens Standard Pan set Sky Blue art swatch card color pigment database stain test masstone diluted PB36 Schmincke Horadam Cobalt Cerulean watercolor pigment art swatch card masstone diluted comparison pro professional PB36 Rosa Gallery Cerulean Blue watercolor swatch card pigment art colour water masstone diluted astm database PB36 White Nights Watercolor Cobalt Chrome Turqoise PB36 Dye Mix Supervision Tube Set Red Blue super vision 1717 fugitive lightfast pigment color art swatch compare stain lift PB36 Rembrandt Cerulean Blue Deep Handprint Pigment Database Granulating Blue PB36 Da Vinci Watercolor Cobalt Turquoise Art Pigment Database PB36 Paul Rubens Standard Pan set Turquoise light pigment art watercolor medium transparent color separation PB36 Schmincke Horadam Cobalt Green Turquoise granulating swatch card genuine test natural art pigment database PB36 Grumbacher Academy Magnesium Green Watercolor Swatch Card PB36 Grumbacher Watercolor Cobalt Turquoise Art Pigment Database PB36 Blick Artists Watercolor Cobalt Turquoise Art Pigment Database PB36 Selah Paint Company Cobalt Turquoise pigment database swatch card water color watercolor art color 

 

PB36 Mixtures:

PB36 Dye Mix Supervision Tube Set Rose Ash super vision 1722 fugitive lightfast pigment color art swatch compare stain lift PB36 PG50 Turner Watercolor Cobalt Turquoise Color Pigment Database Swatch Card PB28 PB36 Winsor and Newton Professional Cobalt Turquoise Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart PB36 PY42 American Journey Cheap Joe's Blue Stone pigment swatch lightfast database card art PB36 PBk11 Schmincke Horadam Forest Blue super granulating tundra and forest swatch pigment card color watercolor art PB36 PB29 PR176 PV19 Roman Szmal Aquarius Watercolor Shadow Violet Light Color Swatch Granulating PR233 PB36 Schmincke Horadam Haze Pink swatch card pigment watercolor art color jacksons exclusive granulating PB36 PBr33 PBk11 Schmincke Horadam Haze Black swatch card pigment watercolor art color jacksons exclusive granulating PBr7 PB36 American Journey Cheap Joe's Pat's Coastal Blue pigment swatch lightfast database card art 

PB60 Indanthrone Blue:
PB60 Winsor and Newton Watercolor Professional Indanthrene Blue Swatch Card Color Chart PB60 Rosa Gallery Watercolor Blue Indantrene Indanthrone Indanthrene Pigment Database PB60 Schmincke Horadam Delft Blue Indanthrene Indanthrone Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart PB60 Schmincke Horadam Dark Blue art color pigment swatch card masstone diluted test granulating PB60 A Gallo Handmade Watercolor Indanthrone Blue pigment art water color colour swatch card sample lightfast fugitive 

 

PB60 Mixtures:
PG7 PB60 Schmincke Horadam Prussian Green watercolor pigment art swatch card masstone diluted comparison pro professional PB60 PB15 PBk6 Paul Rubens Hint of Glitter Pan Set Watercolor Sea Blue Swatch Card Color Chart PY129 PB60 PG7 PBr7 PR101 Old Holland Classic Watercolor Olive Green Dark pigment swatch database card color separation swatch PB60 PBk6 Daniel Smith Watercolor Payne's Blue Gray pigment dip pen swatch card color colour database PB60 PBk7 PR209 Sennelier Pro Watercolor Neutral Tint Art Pigment Database PR122 PB60 PBk7 Schmincke Horadam Neutral Tint watercolor pigment granulating lightfast vibrant swatch database art color PR255 PB60 PO62 Schmincke Horadam Neutral Grey watercolor pigment granulating lightfast vibrant swatch database art color 

 

PB66 Indigo (synthetic): Fugitive. A synthetic reproduction of plant based indigo, fades within several months of nearby window light. Given oddly good lightfast ratings in both Shinhan and Maimeri Blu, but fades at about LFIII-LFIV equivalent. It is likely that the Shinhan Indigo under mixtures below is also a pure PB66 color, but the tube also listed PB29. The color chart catalog and art materials stores have marked this as single pigment PB66, so it may have been a typo.

 

nb1 pb66 natural genuine indigo pigment synthetic lightfast test watercolor maimeri blu

 

PB66 Maimeri Blu Paynes Grey watercolor gray vat blue 1 pigment rare fugitive

 

PB66 Mixtures:
PB29 PB66 Shinhan Korean Color A Indigo Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart PB15:1 PB66 Schmincke Horadam Indigo art color pigment swatch card masstone diluted test granulating 

 

PB71 Zirconium Vanadium Blue:
PB71 Selah Paint Company Zirconium Blue rare uncommon pigment database swatch card water color watercolor art color PB71 A Gallo Zirconium Blue pigment natural fugitive database swatch card water color watercolor art color PB71 Kremer Pigments Zirconium Cerulean Blue pigment database swatch card water color watercolor art color

 

 

PB72 Cobalt Zin Aluminate Blue:
PB72 Roman Szmal Aquarius Watercolor Aquarius Cobalt Blue Color Swatch Granulating

 

 

PB74 Cobalt Zinc Silicate Blue:
PB74 Winsor and Newton Watercolor Professional Cobalt Blue Deep Swatch Card Color Chart PB29 Schmincke Horadam Watercolor Cobalt Blue Deep Granulating Art Pigment Database PB74 Roman Szmal Aquarius Watercolor Cobalt Blue Deep Color Swatch Granulating PB74 Kremer Cobalt Blue Dark watercolor pro student lightfast test swatch card art color pigment database water PB74 Prodigal Son's Handmade Watercolor Cobalt Zinc Silicate Blue pigment swatch etsy granulating art color water card  

 

PB74 Mixtures:

PBk11 PB74 PB35 Schmincke Professional Watercolor Deep Sea Black Granulating Special Edition PY159 PB74 PBk11 Schmincke Horadam Shire Grey watercolor pigment swatch art cart desert volcano new set pan tube 

PB82 MayaCrom Blue B2050:
PB82 Turner Watercolor Maya Blue Color Art Pigment Database Swatch Card

 

PB86 YinMn Blue:
PB86 Schmincke Horadam YinMn Blue watercolor pigment color separating granulating blue wool lightfast swatch art PB86 A Gallo Handmade Watercolor YinMn Blue lightfast fugitive database pigment art swatch card test rare water color colour 

 

NB1 Indigo (natural) - This is a natural plant dye laked as a pigment (fermented leaves of the indigo plant adhered to a salt base). It is fugitive (just like the synthetic version, see PB66). It has fairly strong UV resistance in masstone, but fading easily when diluted. It is offered by only a couple major companies worldwide, including MaimeriBlu (Italy) and Kremer Pigment (Germany). More common paints that are labeled "Indigo" as a color name (without correctly adding the word "hue" to indicate it's not the genuine plant pigment) are usually mixtures made of a lightfast phthalo blue + black instead.
NB1 Indigo Blue Natural watercolor plant based maimeri blu pigment fugitive NB1 A Gallo Indigo pigment natural fugitive database swatch card water color watercolor art color

 

Blue Apatite Genuine: Lightfast mineral pigment. Daniel Smith offers this pigment in watercolor and it is otherwise rarely used in paint making.
Mineral Daniel Smith Blue Apatite Genuine Watercolor sparkle glitter gemstone rare color swatch database pigment

 

Han Blue:
LFI / BW8. Historically significant. Used during the Han dynasty in ancient China. Copper Barium Silicate. Chinese-blue's chemical formula is BaCuSi4O10. By altering the ratios of each chemical (barium from barytes, copper from malachite or azurite, sand/quartz) with high heat this combination can also result in purple to deep magenta leaning colors (like Chinese Magenta BaCuSi2O6, a ceramic material). Naturally blue pigments are scarce, so early chemists in parts of the world without access to Cobalt Blue became creative with altering copper ores. The green-blues from copper ores were turned into deep royal blues at temperatures over 1000 degrees when combined with barium and sand in ceramic kilns. Also see PB31 Egyptian Blue copper frit, a similarly man made pigment (Egyptian blue is much paler in hue with an appearance like Cerulean PB35 instead of Han Blue's deeper Smalt-like blue). Possible chemical yellowing common in copper based pigments has not been reported in Han Blue, but I would generally avoid acid and sulfides near your art made with this pigment. Eagerly granulating.

Mineral Prodigal Son's Handmade Watercolor Han Blue pigment art watercolor colour swatch card database resin lightfast  

Kyanite Genuine: Lightfast mineral pigment. Daniel Smith offers this pigment in watercolor and it is otherwise rarely used in paint making.
Mineral Daniel Smith Kyanite Genuine Watercolor gemstone rare color swatch database pigment

 

Lapis Lazuli (genuine): This natural blue mineral is often a mixture of lazurite, calcite, and pyrite. The deeper blue the mineral, the more Lazurite, and more expensive it tends to be. This is offered by a few watercolor manufacturers including Daniel Smith, Paul Rubens and Roman Szmal. It is a weak pale pigment easily replicated by diluting ultramarine blue. Historically this pigment was very expensive, as one of the only natural blues available to artists before the synthetic version was created. Ultramarine Blue is the synthetically manufactured version of natural Lapis Lazuli.
Lapis Lazuli Natural Mineral Roman Szmal Aquarius Watercolor Lazurite Color Swatch Granulating Mineral Prodigal Son's Handmade Watercolor Lapis Lazuli pigment art water color swatch card database natural rare A Gallo Lapis Lazuli genuine natural mineral granulating stone database swatch card water color watercolor art color Mineral Schmincke Horadam Lapis Lazuli granulating swatch card genuine test natural art pigment database Lazurite Mineral Paul Rubens Lapis Lazuli pigment swatch art color professional pro grade watercolor transparent lightfast card Lazurite Mineral SuperVision Impure Lapis Lazuli pigment swatch art color watercolor transparent lightfast card Mineral Daniel Smith Lapis Lazuli dried pan sample watercolor pigment color separating granulating blue wool lightfast swatch art Mineral Daniel Smith Lapis Lazuli tube sample watercolor pigment color separating granulating blue wool lightfast swatch art 

 

Palomar Turquoise: This pigment is Phthalo based, developed by Sun Chemical company for the automotive industry. Winsor and Newton has used this ingredient for their watercolor paint named "Aqua Green". It is similar in blue-green hue to Phthalo Turquoise PB16, but due to larger particle size this color also has a subtle green granulation particularly apparent in wet washes.
Winsor and Newton Professional Aqua Green Watercolor Swatch Card Color Chart

 

Sodalite Genuine: Lightfast mineral pigment. Daniel Smith offers this pigment in watercolor and it is otherwise rarely used in paint making. Caution - I have seen some color changes in the wet tube/stick form over a period of 3 or more years in humid environments. This appears to desaturate the blue hue to a flat gray-black, but not in thin layers already painted on paper. This pigment appears to be stable once used, but left in larger clumps with internal humidity and environmental factors it can change color. There have been reviews where people have gotten a "new" tube and it was darker gray, no blue to be seen, but I can't be certain they didn't get old stock that sat at a store for too long vs. there being natural batch to batch differences in this mineral. I can tell you that my single stick (like a dry pan) sample changed color over a period of 3 years in humid Florida - resulting in the exact same paint swatching blue when new and gray when old.
Mineral Daniel Smith Sodalite Genuine STICK Watercolor sparkle glitter gemstone rare color swatch database pigment Mineral Daniel Smith Sodalite Genuine PAN Watercolor sparkle glitter gemstone rare color swatch database pigment

 

Sugalite: Lightfast mineral pigment. Daniel Smith offers this pigment in watercolor and it is otherwise rarely used in paint making.
Mineral Daniel Smith Sugalite Genuine Watercolor sparkle glitter gemstone rare color swatch database pigment

 

Vivianite (Blue Ochre):  AKA Blue Ochre. Natural mineral, Ferric Phosphate. LFI but prone to discoloration from causes other than UV/sun. Vivianite can yellow over time, likely due to a chemical process involving interactions with other pigments, acids (possibly honey in watercolor binder) or atmospheric sulfides. When fresh or well preserved, Vivianite provides beautiful deep muted blues with superb granulation texture. Despite requiring special care and not being recommended for permanent works, this pigment is a joy to use and can provide unique effects for use in sketchbooks or art destined for print reproduction. It is likely that the pigment is more prone to yellowing while in a damp/regularly re-wet pan or in a tube. Vivianite's color is far more likely to be stable once painted onto dry, acid-free paper.
Mineral Prodigal Son's Handmade Watercolor Vivianite pigment art water color swatch card database natural rare Mineral Prodigal Son's Handmade Watercolor Vivianite Extra Dark pigment art water color swatch card database natural rare Vivianite Blue Ochre Roman Szmal Aquarius Watercolor Natural Mineral Color Swatch Granulating 

 

VB1 - Vat Blue 1 - Appears to be the older name for PB66 Synthetic Indigo. Some pigment manufacturers (like Cornelissen established in 1855) as well as watercolor companies like MaimeriBlu and Utrecht (now owned by Blick) still label this pigment as Vat Blue 1. It appears that a mistake was made on Blick's website under Utrecht Indigo Blue watercolor's pigment tab, marking VB1 as PB1 (Victoria Blue) on accident. However, that is a different pigment (likely a typo). Vat Blue 1 is reflected on the paint label itself. The reason I have separately listed Utrecht's version here (instead of under PB66 with Maimeri's version) is because there is something substantially different about the way it was made.

utrecht indigo synthetic vat blue 1 lightfast test not fugitive for a pb66

UNLIKE natural or synthetic indigo (NB1 or PB66) or even Victoria Blue PB1, this "Indigo Blue" by Utrecht IS actually lightfast. It appears that something was manufactured completely differently for this version of Vat Blue 1.

 

Utrecht indigo watercolor paint pb66 vat blue 1 vb1 not victoria blue pb1 pigment

 

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Swatch card template available for download here, or get the rubber stamp here. Swatch cards were painted on Legion Black or Arches Cold Press 100% cotton watercolor paper. Paper and brushes are available at Jackson's or Amazon here:

 

 

 

I buy most of my supplies online at Blick or Jackson's art materials.

 

https://www.dickblick.com

 

 

I use affiliate links only to stores I have personally purchased art materials. When available I'll include multiple reputable stores so you can compare and decide where you'd like to shop. Dick Blick ("DB" links below) is a large art supply chain store here in the USA that ships worldwide. Jackson's ("Jack" links below) is a great UK based art supply store which also ships worldwide, but carries some harder to find European products with quick low cost shipping to the USA. Amazon USA ("Ama" links below) often offers unique brands, including small business and Chinese off brand watercolor sets, that can not be found anywhere else. As an Amazon associate, I earn from qualifying purchases.

Arches 100% cotton cold press 140# watercolor paper is one of the most durable surfaces for technical pen, scrubbing and lifting. It's surface sizing (coating) and texture is a good middle ground compared to the extremes of different brands. Due to these traits, and it being around for long enough to be the most commonly recommended paper for professionals, all of my swatches are done on this paper for consistency. Only white (and mica paints that do not show up on white) use the Legion Black paper instead. I buy arches paper at Blick, and if you are in the USA this is likely the most affordable place to buy it.

 

Daniel Smith watercolors -- available on DB, Jack or Ama.
Rembrandt watercolors -- available on DB in Pans or TubesJack or Ama.

 

Interested in other ways to help this project? Visit me at Kimberly Crick Art on YouTube or Patreon. If you have supplies that you would like to donate, such as watercolor dot cards or samples from your company that you would like reviewed or displayed in this pigment directory, please email me at enchantedgallery@gmail.com or use the contact form with details. Thank you :)

 

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Lightfast Tests and Art Supply Reviews Pigment Database

Note: this page contains affiliate links. All product opinions are my own. I am committed to honest reviews showcasing both the pros and cons of each product. I have not received payment from any brand for a review. I earn a commission from sales made through this web page's clickable banners or links to Amazon, Arteza, Scrapbook, Jackson's or Blick Art Materials websites.